Annotated Bibliography

Borchert, James. Alley Life in Washington: Family, Community, Religion, and Folklife in the City, 1850-1970. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1980.

Alley life in Washington is a cornerstone of the analysis of city planning and urban beautification. James Borchert explores the institutions that arose in these urban African American folk communities, like family, religion, social networks, and education. Morals and acceptable living conditions were more fluid and negotiable in this setting, as a means of adaptation. Borchert examines what made the alleys come about, and also how they were the targets of regulation from the outside.

Cheek, Charles and Amy Friedlander. "Pottery and Pig's Feet: Space, Ethnicity, and Neighborhood in Washington, DC, 1800-1940"  Historical Archaeology 24, no. 1. (Winter 1990) (accessed October 2011).

The inquiry module will benefit from this source's exploration of division and distribution of space and how that intertwines with 'ethnic behavior'. This article argues that the alleys were more culturally based than economically based, and that much of it had to do with the adaptation to urbanization. As African Americans migrated from the South to cities, fears peaked in the white communities and the blacks began adapting in new ways.

Farrar, Margaret. "Health and Beauty in the Body Politic: Subjectivity and Urban Space" Polity 33, no. 1. (Fall 2000) (accessed October 2011).

The use of space as a political commodity is a major focus of my inquiry module and Farrar's analysis of Washington, DC's urban space is critical to my examination of the McMillan plan's ramifications. Space is taken and ceded politically to exclude the undesirables, in this case, the urban African Americans. Farrar employs Michel Foucault in her argument that space becomes power and uses turn of the century Washington, DC as her prime example. She does not neglect the African Americans' unwillingness to be evicted from the city, analyzing their use of unwanted space in innovative ways, as a quiet disobedience.

Gillette, Howard. Between Justice and Beauty: Race, Planning, and the Urban Policy in Washington, DC. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

Washington, DC must be placed in its unique context of capital city, national symbol, and lack of statehood as its planning is studied. This source effectively examines the effect of federal sovereignty on DC policy both as it succeeds and as it fails. Control, power, and authority take different shapes in Washington, DC than they do in other cities, so the policy in the city is a great case study. This source will contribute to the discourse on home rule and public space in a federal city.

Gutheim, Frederick and Wilcomb Washburn. The Federal City: Plans and Realities. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1976.

This history of Washington, DC is chronicled in this book and the section titled "1900-1926: The Metropolitan City" will be the most helpful to this analysis. The chapter captures the climate of the era and reveals the impulses beneath the City Beautiful movement and the McMillan Plan.

Hannold, Elizabeth. "Comfort and Respectability: Washington's Philanthropic Housing Movement," Washington History 4, no. 2 (Fall1992) (accessed October 2011).

While politicians monopolized the space in Washington DC, this source will inform my paper with its analysis of the philanthropic housing movement. Parallel to the emergence of alley housing, some citizens decided to lead their own movement for dignified, low-income housing. This is a secondary reaction to the McMillan plan and creates a interesting counterpoint to the politicians seizing public lands.

Peterson, Jon. The Birth of City Planning in the United States, 1840-1917. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

City planning emerged as a new and innovative trend near the turn of the centuries and the impulses and motivations for its birth are necessary to the analysis of the McMillan Plan and the City Beautiful Movement. This book traces the movement towards urban planning as a whole, with its roots in the Chicago's World Fair, its pioneering example of the McMillan Plan, and the associated ideals of art, Progressivism, public welfare, and civic virtue.

Savage, Kirk. Monument Wars. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009.

In this work, the section "Inventing Public Space" will be the most helpful. It will aid in the module's understanding of seizing of space by those in power. It investigates the creation of a National Mall space in Washington, DC and how that was made possible by power and authority.