Annotated Bibliography

Conn, Stetson. 1964. "The Decision To Evacuate the Japanese From the Pacific Coast," in GUARDING THE UNITED STATES AND ITS OUTPOSTS. Edited by Stetson Conn, Rose C. Engelman, and Byron Fairchild. Center of Military History, United States Army, Washington D.C.

Conn's work is one chapter of a much larger series on the United States in World War II. As such, it provides a limited view of the Japansese internment. However, this does not mean that Conn's work is lacking. In fact, Conn's examination of the events immediately preceding the internment, as well as the institutional and social influences is exceedingly well constructed. His historiographical examination is well worth a look.

Daniels, Roger. 1971. Concentration camps USA: Japanese Americans and World War II. Berkshire studies in history. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Daniels' work, although dated, is a good starting point for any research on internment. One criticism is that the work is old enough that it does not include the most recent developments in the theories surrounding internment - specifically the racial and ethnic arguments that have been so well developed in the recent years. However, Daniels certainly does a good job given the time when his book was released.

Hata, Donald Teruo, Dominguez Hills, and Nadine Ishitani Hata. 1995. Japanese Americans and World War II: exclusion, internment, and redress. Wheeling, Ill: Harlan Davidson.

This work's brevity belies its usefulness. A well constructed examination of the internment, this work is a great general overview of the institutional and cultural factors involved in the internment, although not necessarily of the same depth as other works, it is still a good work to look at in order to get a good general overview of the internment process.

Hayashi, Brian Masaru. 2004. Democratizing the enemy: the Japanese American internment. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Hayashi does an amazing job with his examination of the factors leading up to the Japanese relocation, although the work mostly focuses on the actual conditions and events that occured during the internment. Hayashi succintly and deftly explains the institutional instruments used to measure Japanese loyalty such as the government sponsored loyalty questionnaires. This work is essential for a full and complete understanding of the actual internment itself.

Lee, Fred. 2007. The Japanese Internment and the Racial State of Exception. Theory & Event 10, no. 1, (January 1): (accessed December 23, 2010).

Lee builds of the early works of Robinson (his FDR book) and Hayashi to make convincing and detailed arguments concerning the ethnic (actually racist) sentiments that surrounded the Japanese internment. In particular this article details the racial tensions before the actual internment, and then the racism that was justified through institutional means such as the War Relocation Authority.

Muller, Eric L. 2007. American inquisition: the hunt for Japanese American disloyalty in World War II. H. Eugene and Lillian Youngs Lehman series. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Muller's work conforms with the late 20th and 21st century views on Japanese internment, i.e. the sociocultural perspectives that focus on the institutional controls that allowed the internment and the cultural (especially racist) feelings that pervaded the general opinions of Americans about persons of Japanese descent.

Robinson, Greg. 2009. A tragedy of democracy: Japanese confinement in North America. New York: Columbia University Press.

Robinson is the foremost historian working on Japanese internment and this work provides the most modern and expansive view of the internment. His research is not only comprehensive but also refutes many earlier attempts at historical documentation that fail to completely examine the cultural aspects of the internment. Any research that does not include at the very least a serious examination of Robinson's work would be incomplete at best.

Smith, Page. 1995. Democracy on trial: the Japanese American evacuation and relocation in World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Smith's work does a great job of examining the legal cases involved with Japanese internment. Of particular note are the sections examining Korematsu v. United States, Hayabayashi v. United States, and Ex parte Mitsuye Endo which are the landmark Supreme Court cases during the period of Japanese internment. Korematsu and Endo in particular were significant, and both cases were decided on December 18th, 1944.

United States. 1997. Personal justice denied. Wash., D.C.: Civil Liberties Public Education Fund. Accessed online at

One of the most comprehensive historical accountings of the internment period. This work also includes a very detailed view of the cultural factors influencing the treatment of Japanese Americans during the period leading up to World War II. The actual events occuring during World War II are well documented and although this book was compiled through government efforts, it does not feature biased reporting. In fact this work shows a remarkable depth of investigative historigraphical work that does a great job examining the sociocultural and institutional factors affecting the internment.

Annotated Bibliography
Annotated Bibliography