The answer to this inquiry model’s questions resides somewhere within the conditions of the Great Migration-era industrial midwest. Though the Black Legion and the Moorish Science Temple of America may have organized around diametrically opposed (racially-defined) goals, they nevertheless each thrived amidst the social, political, and economic turmoil that accompanied this mass migration to the urban midwest. While fraternal organizations such as the Shriners gained nationwide prominence throughout the late 19th century, it was the midwest of the early 20th that saw imitators rise to success by adopting their fraternal structure and use of mystical symbols. The KKK may have been a national powerful group, but only the midwest gave birth to its violent Black Legion offshoot. The Moorish Science Temple may have been founded in Newark, New Jersey, but it quickly found a home in the urban midwest. To answer how and why these two competing groups bear such surprising resemblance, one need look no farther than the tumultuous conditions of the time and place responsible for their growth.